Coagulation is a complex process by which the blood forms clots to block and then heal a lesion/wound/cut and stop the bleeding. It is a crucial part of hemostasis- stopping blood loss from damaged blood vessels. In hemostasis a damaged blood vessel wall is plugged by a platelet and a fibrin-containing clot to stop the bleeding, so that the damage can be repaired. Coagulation involves a cellular (platelet) and protein (coagulation factor) component. When the lining of a blood vessel (endothelium) is damaged, platelets immediately form a plug at the site of the injury, while at the same time proteins in the blood plasma respond in a complex chemical reaction, rather like a waterfall, to form fibrin strands which reinforce the platelet plug.

White blood cells(WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

Plasma is the liquid (fluid) part of the blood. It makes the largest part of the blood. Plasma is pale in colour.

Platelets are responsible for clotting or coagulation of blood. In case of an injury, the blood clots after some time. This prevents excess loss of blood. Clotting of blood is a defense mechanism in the body.

 

White blood cells make the immune system of the body.
Red blood cells contain a red pigment called haemoglobin
Platelets are responsible for clotting or coagulation of blood. In case of an injury, the blood clots after some time. This prevents excess loss of blood. Clotting of blood is a defence mechanism in the body
Blood carries oxygen from lungs to various parts of the body

Blood group O – Universal donor
Blood group AB – Universal receptor

The “O” blood group is a universal donor for human blood donation and the person with blood group AB is the universal acceptor.

 

Blood pH is regulated to stay within the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45, making it slightly basic. This ideal blood 7.4 pH measurement means it is just slightly more alkaline than acid. The pH in the human digestive tract varies greatly (see Human Digestive Tract pH Range Chart on the left side). The pH of saliva is usually between 6.5 – 7.5.

 

After about 100-120 days of being in the circulation, RBCs are removed from through a process called “eryptosis”. Erythropoiesis is the process by which human erythrocytes are produced. Erythrocytes have a life-span of 100-120 days. Human erythrocytes are produced through a process named erythropoiesis, developing from committed stem cells to mature erythrocytes in about 7 days. When matured, in a healthy individual these cells live in blood circulation for about 100 to 120 days (and 80 to 90 days in a full term infant).
Topic: The World of the Living
  • Neutrophils and lymphocytes orginate from the bone marrow.
  • B-lymphocytes, originate in the bone marrow, produce antibodies to fight off infection. The antibody attaches to the microbe, tagging it as “foreign”. Infection-fighting cells called neutrophils can now recognize the microbe, engulf and digest it.

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